Distribution patterns of palms, particularly species richness along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Bolivia, are still unknown. A species distribution model was used to identify areas with potentially high palm species richness and endemism. Two models were used: the environmental niche model and a deductive model. A map of potential palm species richness in Bolivia was prepared using 1 km2 pixels. Two areas are predicted to concentrate most of the potential palm species richness of Bolivia: the southwestern Amazonian moist forest, and the Yungas Andean forest of Bolivia. The potential distribution of Bolivia's endemic palm species appeared to be associated to the eastern side of the Andes. Most palms have Amazonian phytogeographic influences, followed by Andean. The areas identified with greatest potential species diversity coincided with observed patterns at a continental level. The greatest palm richness of northern and northwestern Bolivia may be related to the climatic conditions of these zones. Bolivia represents the southern and western distribution limit of many palm species in terms of continental phytogeographic patterns.