Roads and highways represent one of the most important anthropogenic impacts on natural areas and contribute to habitat fragmentation, because they are linear features that can inhibit animal movement, thereby causing barrier effects subdividing the populations adjacent to the roads. The paper examines to what extent a narrow (2-lane) and a wide (4-lane) highways represent barriers for two small mammal species: bank voles Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780 and yellow-necked mice Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834, and whether displaced rodents are able to return across roads of different widths. The study was performed at four sites in the Czech Republic. The capture-mark-recapture method was used to determine crossing rates. At two sites, the animals captured close to the road were transferred to the other side and released, to compare return movements across the roads with the movements made by the non-transferred animals. We found that the narrow highway did not prevent movement of neither of the species, although voles crossed only after they had been transferred. Wide highways, on the other hand, completely prevened crossing of both species. While the narrow highways acted at individuals level, the wide highways affected the population subvision.