Anemophilous species depend on wind for sexual reproduction. When plants do not receive enough pollen and/or pollen has poor quality, they may experience pollen limitation. This can reduce the production of fruits and seeds with negative consequences on population dynamics. The self-compatibility system also plays an important role on the likelihood of a species suffering pollen limitation as it determines if plants can produce fruits and seeds in the absence of compatible mates. Here, we studied the breeding system of the Andean anemophilous tree Polylepis incarum, a critically endangered species endemic to Lake Titicaca. We conducted controlled experimental pollination experiments and florescence microscopy analysis to assess whether pollen limitation and the incompatibility system constrain fruit and seed production. Results showed that the seed set is limited by pollen availability, that P. incarum exhibits a pre-zygotic compatibility system and early inbreeding depression manifested during seed development. Therefore, self-pollination is a factor that could be partially associated with the production of non-viable seeds.
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