We describe a multivariate metric comparison of three sandfly species showing strong differences in size, which questions the geographical distribution of one of them. Two species are represented by a single population (L. robusta and L. guilvardae) and one by two populations (L. serrana). All of them belong to the series serrana (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae). The morphometric data confirm that L. guilvardae is a distinct species. However, they suggest that L. robusta and L. serrana in Ecuador are the same taxon, and that it is distinguishable from the population of L. serrana in Bolivia. A multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis comparing L. serrana in Bolivia and L. robusta in Ecuador adds further evidence that these two populations are distinct species. Thus, our data seem to indicate that, in Ecuador, the population previously identified as L. serrana is actually the same species as the allopatric population previously identified as L. robusta. Accepting L. serrana in Ecuador as small-sized L. robusta, the resulting geographic distribution of this latter becomes in closer agreement with ecology and epidemiology.