Human Pesticide Exposure in Bolivia: A Scoping Review of Current Knowledge, Future Challenges and Research Needs

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Resumen

Numerous studies have shown that pesticide exposure is linked to adverse health outcomes. Nevertheless, in Bolivia, where there is an increasing use of pesticides, the literature is sparse. To address knowledge gaps and guide future research in Bolivia, we conducted a scoping review spanning 22 years (January 2000 to December 2022). Our search identified 39 peer-reviewed articles, 27 reports/documents on Bolivian regulations, and 12 other documents. Most studies focused on farmers and revealed high pesticide exposure levels, assessed through biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility, and effect. The literature explored a range of health effects due to pesticide exposure, spanning from acute to chronic conditions. Many studies highlighted the correlation between pesticide exposure and genotoxic damage, measured as DNA strand breaks and/or micronuclei formation. This was particularly observed in farmers without personal protection equipment (PPE), which increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, including cancer. Recent findings also showed the alarming use of banned or restricted pesticides in Bolivian crops. Despite existing Bolivian regulations, the uncontrolled use of pesticides persists, leading to harmful health effects on the population and increasing land and water pollution. This review underscores the need for the stringent enforcement of regulations and continued research efforts, and it provides a scientific foundation for decision-making by relevant authorities.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo305
PublicaciónInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volumen21
N.º3
DOI
EstadoPublicada - mar. 2024

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