Genetic uniformity, geographical spread and anthropogenic habitat modifications of lymnaeid vectors found in a One Health initiative in the highest human fascioliasis hyperendemic of the Bolivian Altiplano

M. Dolores Bargues, Patricio Artigas, Rene Angles, David Osca, Pamela Duran, Paola Buchon, R. Karina Gonzales-Pomar, Julio Pinto-Mendieta, Santiago Mas-Coma

Resultado de la investigación: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

13 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Background: Fascioliasis is a snail-borne zoonotic trematodiasis emerging due to climate changes, anthropogenic environment modifications, and livestock movements. Many areas where Fasciola hepatica is endemic in humans have been described in Latin America altitude areas. Highest prevalences and intensities were reported from four provinces of the northern Bolivian Altiplano, where preventive chemotherapy is ongoing. New strategies are now incorporated to decrease infection/re-infection risk, assessment of human infection sources to enable efficient prevention measures, and additionally a One Health initiative in a selected zone. Subsequent extension of these pilot interventions to the remaining Altiplano is key. Methods: To verify reproducibility throughout, 133 specimens from 25 lymnaeid populations representative of the whole Altiplano, and 11 used for population dynamics studies, were analyzed by rDNA ITS2 and ITS1 and mtDNA cox1 and 16S sequencing to assess their classification, variability and geographical spread. Results: Lymnaeid populations proved to belong to a monomorphic group, Galba truncatula. Only a single cox1 mutation was found in a local population. Two cox1 haplotypes were new. Comparisons of transmission foci data from the 1990's with those of 2018 demonstrated an endemic area expansion. Altitudinal, northward and southward expansions suggest movements of livestock transporting G. truncatula snails, with increasing temperatures transforming previously unsuitable habitats into suitable transmission areas. Transmission foci appear to be stable when compared to past field observations, except for those modified by human activities, including construction of new roads or control measures undertaken in relation to fascioliasis. Conclusions: For a One Health initiative, the control of only one Fasciola species and snail vector species simplifies efforts because of the lower transmission complexity. Vector monomorphism suggests uniformity of vector population responses after control measure implementation. Hyperendemic area outer boundary instability suggests a climate change impact. All populations outside previously known boundaries were close to villages, human dwellings and/or schools, and should therefore be considered during disease control planning. The remarkable southward expansion implies that a fifth province, Aroma, should now be included within preventive chemotherapy programmes. This study highlights the need for lymnaeid molecular identification, transmission foci stability monitoring, and potential vector spread assessment.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo171
PublicaciónParasites and Vectors
Volumen13
N.º1
DOI
EstadoPublicada - 6 abr. 2020

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