South American camelids are definitive hosts of Fasciola hepatica. However, their capacity to participate in the transmission and epidemiology of fascioliasis has never been appropriately studied. Therefore, an F. hepatica isolate from Argentine llama is for the first time analyzed using Galba truncatula lymnaeids from Bolivia. Experimental follow-up studies included egg embryogen-esis, miracidial infection of lymnaeid snails, intramolluscan larval development, cercarial produc-tion, chronobiology of cercarial shedding, vector survival to infection, and metacercarial infectivity of mammal host. Shorter prepatent and patent periods were leading to markedly lower cercarial production, shorter cercarial shedding, and a higher negative impact on snail survival. The usually low liver fluke prevalences and intensities and low daily fecal outputs indicate that llamas do not substantially contribute to fascioliasis transmission. The defecating behavior in dung piles far from freshwater collections prevents lymnaeid infection by eggs shed by this camelid. All results suggest the reservoir role of the llama to be negligible and, therefore, no priority within control measures in endemic areas. However, llamas may play a disease-spreading role if used as pack animals in rural areas. In the Northern Bolivian Altiplano human hyperendemic area, neither llamas nor alpacas should be considered for control measures within a One Health action.
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