The effect of supplementation on growth was tested by means of four similar controlled randomized trials in the Congo (n = 120), Senegal (n = 110), Bolivia (n = 127), and New Caledonia (n = 90). Four-month-old infants were randomly allocated to supplement or control groups. A cereal-based precooked porridge was offered twice daily for 3 mo and consumption was monitored. Both groups were free to eat local food. At 7 mo of age, all infants were still breast-fed in the Congo, Senegal, and Bolivia compared with 47% in New Caledonia. Mean daily consumption of the supplement varied among countries (558-790 kJ/d). Mean length at 4 mo was lowest in Bolivia, higher in Senegal and the Congo, and near the National Center for Health Statistics reference in New Caledonia. The mean 4-7-mo length increment was 0.48 cm higher for supplemented than for control infants in Senegal (P < 0.05), whereas weight increments did not differ. No significant effect was found in the other countries.