In shallow aquatic environments, sediment is a significant source of monomethylmercury (MMHg) for surface water (SW). High-altitude aquatic ecosystems are characterized by extreme hydro-climatic constraints (e.g., low oxygen and high UV radiation). We studied, during two seasons, the diel cycles of MMHg in SW and sediment porewaters (PW) of Lake Uru Uru (3686 m a.s.l, Bolivia) contaminated by urban and mining activities. Our results show that diel changes in SW MMHg concentrations (up to 1.8 ng L−1) overwhelm seasonal ones, with higher MMHg accumulation during the night-time and the dry season. The calculation of MMHg diffusive fluxes demonstrates that the sediment compartment was the primary source of MMHg to the SW. Most MMHg efflux occurred during the dry season (35.7 ± 17.4 ng m−2 day−1), when the lake was relatively shallow, more eutrophicated, and with the redoxcline located above the sediment–water interface (SWI). Changes in MMHg accumulation in the PWs were attributed to diel redox oscillations around the SWI driving both the bacterial sulfate reduction and bio-methylation. Finally, we highlight that although MMHg loading from the PW to the SW is large, MMHg photodegradation and demethylation by microorganisms control the net MMHg accumulation in the water column.
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