The SALTENA Experiment: Comprehensive Observations of Aerosol Sources, Formation, and Processes in the South American Andes

Federico Bianchi, Victoria A. Sinclair, Diego Aliaga, Qiaozhi Zha, Wiebke Scholz, Cheng Wu, Liine Heikkinen, Rob Modini, Eva Partoll, Fernando Velarde, Isabel Moreno, Yvette Gramlich, Wei Huang, Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Markus Leiminger, Joonas Enroth, Otso Peräkylä, Angela Marinoni, Chen Xuemeng, Luis BlacuttRicardo Forno, Rene Gutierrez, Patrick Ginot, Gaëlle Uzu, Maria Cristina Facchini, Stefania Gilardoni, Martin Gysel-Beer, Runlong Cai, Tuukka Petäjä, Matteo Rinaldi, Harald Saathoff, Karine Sellegri, Douglas Worsnop, Paulo Artaxo, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paolo Laj, Radovan Krejci, Samara Carbone, Marcos Andrade, Claudia Mohr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

This paper presents an introduction to the Southern Hemisphere High Altitude Experiment on Particle Nucleation and Growth (SALTENA). This field campaign took place between December 2017 and June 2018 (wet to dry season) at Chacaltaya (CHC), a GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station located at 5,240 m MSL in the Bolivian Andes. Concurrent measurements were conducted at two additional sites in El Alto (4,000 m MSL) and La Paz (3,600 m MSL). The overall goal of the campaign was to identify the sources, understand the formation mechanisms and transport, and characterize the properties of aerosol at these stations. State-of-the-art instruments were brought to the station complementing the ongoing permanent GAW measurements, to allow a comprehensive description of the chemical species of anthropogenic and biogenic origin impacting the station and contributing to new particle formation. In this overview we first provide an assessment of the complex meteorology, airmass origin, and boundary layer-free troposphere interactions during the campaign using a 6-month high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation coupled with Flexible Particle dispersion model (FLEXPART). We then show some of the research highlights from the campaign, including (i) chemical transformation processes of anthropogenic pollution while the air masses are transported to the CHC station from the metropolitan area of La Paz-El Alto, (ii) volcanic emissions as an important source of atmospheric sulfur compounds in the region, (iii) the characterization of the compounds involved in new particle formation, and (iv) the identification of long-range-transported compounds from the Pacific or the Amazon basin. We conclude the article with a presentation of future research foci. The SALTENA dataset highlights the importance of comprehensive observations in strategic high-altitude locations, especially the undersampled Southern Hemisphere.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E212-E229
JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Volume103
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the Bolivian staff of the IIF-UMSA (Institute for Physics Research, UMSA) who work at CHC for their valuable work under difficult conditions and the IRD (Institute for Research and Development) personnel for the logistic and financial support during all the campaign including shipping and customs concerns. We also acknowledge the CSC-IT Center for Science, Finland, for generous computational resources that enabled the WRF and FLEXPART-WRF simulations to be conducted. We thank the European Union (EU) H2020 program via the findings European Research Council (ERC; project CHAPAs 850614 and ATM-GTP 742206) and the Marie Skłodowska Curie (CLOUD-MOTION 764991), the Finnish Centre of Excellence as well as the Academy of Finland (projects 311932, 315203, and 337549), and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (WAF project CLOUDFORM 2017.0165). P. Artaxo acknowledge funds from FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) Grant 2017/17047-0. The long-term observations used in SALTENA are performed within the framework of GAW and ACTRIS, receiving support from UMSA, and from the international stakeholders. In France, support from CNRS through ACTRIS-FR/SNO CLAP, and IR DATA TERRA, Institut de Recherche et Développement (IRD) and Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Grenoble (OSUG) through ANR LABEX in particular is greatly acknowledged. We acknowledge the use of imagery provided by services from NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS).

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments. We thank the Bolivian staff of the IIF-UMSA (Institute for Physics Research, UMSA) who work at CHC for their valuable work under difficult conditions and the IRD (Institute for Research and Development) personnel for the logistic and financial support during all the campaign including shipping and customs concerns. We also acknowledge the CSC–IT Center for Science, Finland, for generous computational resources that enabled the WRF and FLEXPART-WRF simulations to be conducted. We thank the European Union (EU) H2020 program via the findings European Research Council (ERC; project CHAPAs 850614 and ATM-GTP 742206) and the Marie Skłodowska Curie (CLOUD-MOTION 764991), the Finnish Centre of Excellence as well as the Academy of Finland (projects 311932, 315203, and 337549), and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (WAF project CLOUDFORM 2017.0165). P. Artaxo acknowledge funds from FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) Grant 2017/17047-0. The long-term observations used in SALTENA are performed within the framework of GAW and ACTRIS, receiving support from UMSA, and from the international stakeholders. In France, support from CNRS through ACTRIS-FR/SNO CLAP, and IR DATA TERRA, Institut de Recherche et Développement (IRD) and Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers de Grenoble (OSUG) through ANR LABEX in particular is greatly acknowledged. We acknowledge the use of imagery provided by services from NASA’s Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), part of NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Meteorological Society

Keywords

  • Aerosol nucleation
  • Aerosols/particulates
  • Atmospheric composition
  • Biosphere/atmosphere interactions
  • Gas-to-particle conversion
  • Measurements

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