Simultaneous Observation of Solar Neutrons from the International Space Station and High Mountain Observatories in Association with a Flare on July 8, 2014

Y. Muraki, D. Lopez, K. Koga, F. Kakimoto, T. Goka, L. X. González, S. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, H. Matsumoto, P. Miranda, O. Okudaira, T. Obara, J. Salinas, T. Sako, S. Shibata, R. Ticona, Y. Tsunesada, J. F. Valdés-Galicia, K. Watanabe, T. Yamamoto

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Abstract

An M6.5-class flare was observed at N12E56 on the solar surface at 16:06 UT on July 8, 2014. In association with the flare, two neutron detectors located at high mountains, Mt. Sierra Negra in Mexico and Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, recorded two neutron pulses, separated approximately by 30 min. Moreover, enhancements were also observed by the solar neutron detector onboard the International Space Station. We analyzed these data combined with solar images from Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. From these we noticed that the production mechanism of neutrons cannot be explained by a single model; at least one of the enhancements may be explained by an electric field generated by the collision of magnetic loops and the other by the shock acceleration mechanism at the front side of the CME.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1241-1265
Number of pages25
JournalSolar Physics
Volume291
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge each institute who supported observations for a long period. The members of JAXA acknowledge the members of Tsukuba operation center of Kibo operation center for taking the SEDA-NEM-FIB data every day. The members of Nagoya University and Tokyo Institute for Technology would like to express sincere thanks to UMSA, Bolivia, for keeping the neutron detectors at Mt. Chacaltaya observatory well, even under very severe environmental conditions. The members of UNAM, Nagoya University and Chubu University also acknowledge the people of INAOE and LMT group, Mexico, who kindly allowed us to use the electric power supply line and the internet connection. The UNAM members, JFVG and LXG, thank the partial support of grants IN104115 PAPIIT-UNAM and CONACyT 180727. The SDO/AIA data used in this article are courtesy of the NASA/SDO and the AIA science team. The CME catalog is generated and maintained at the CDAW Data Center by NASA and the Catholic University of America in cooperation with Naval Research. All authors thank the Solar Dynamics Observatory group of NASA who provided us very valuable data. We also thank to Dr. Jyunichi Sakai of Toyama University and Dr. Masahiro Hoshino of Tokyo University for valuable discussions on the event. The authors would like to acknowledge an anonymous referee who has provided us very valuable comments to improve the physics of the paper. Thanks are also due to the editor who have given us many useful comments.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Keywords

  • Cosmic rays, solar
  • Energetic particles, neutrons
  • Flares

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