Simultaneous observation of families and accompanied air showers at Mt. Chacaltaya

N. Kawasumi, I. Tsushima, K. Honda, K. Hashimoto, T. Matano, N. Inoue, K. Mori, A. Ohsawa, M. Tamada, N. Ohmori, N. Martinic, R. Ticona, N. Gironda, F. Osco, C. Aguirre

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32 Scopus citations


Simultaneous observations of families and accompanied air showers with emulsion chambers and the air shower array of electronic equipment at Mt. Chacaltaya (5200 m, 540 g/cm2) reveal that families bear the data of nuclear interactions generated deep in the atmosphere. 47 outstanding families with ΣEγ≥10 TeV are correlated with the accompanied air showers of the size 105-108. A scatter plot of the average family energy versus the size of the relative air shower requires further energy fractionizing process(es) in the propagation of high energy cosmic rays in the atmosphere, such as a larger dissipative mechanism in nuclear interaction, heavier chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays, etc. We reach the conclusion that nuclear interaction changes its features in the energy region E0≳1016 eV, because the heavier composition, proposed so far, is not sufficient for the required dissipative process. A comparison with the data from the HADRON experiment at a similar altitude with a similar technique shows that no larger deviations are present between both experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3534-3546
Number of pages13
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1996


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