Residual brewing yeast as substrate for co-production of cell biomass and biofilm using candida maltosa sm4

Vidal Flores-Copa, Luis Romero-Soto, Danitza Romero-Calle, María Teresa Alvarez-Aliaga, Felipe Orozco-Gutierrez, José Vega-Baudrit, Carlos Martín, Cristhian Carrasco

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3 Scopus citations


Candida maltosa was cultivated in the liquid phase of residual brewing yeast, a major brewery residue, to produce biomass and biofilm. Using response surface methodology, the effect of two variables at two different levels was investigated. The independent variables were agitation speed (at 100 and 200 rpm), and aeration (at 1 and 3 L min−1). Aeration was identified to be important for the production of both biomass and biofilm, while agitation was the only factor significantly affecting biofilm production. The maximal production of biofilm (2.33 g L−1) was achieved for agitation of 200 rpm and aeration of 1 L min−1, while the maximum for biomass (16.97 g L−1) was reached for 100 rpm agitation and 3 L min−1 air flow. A logistic model applied to predict the growth of C. maltosa in the exponential phase and the biofilm production, showed a high degree of agreement between the prediction and the actual biomass measured experimentally. The produced biofilms were further characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). FTIR allowed the identification of methyl, carbonyl ester and sulfate groups, and revealed the presence of uronic acid moieties and glycosidic bonds. Water-retention ability up to relatively high temperatures was revealed by TGA, and that makes the produced biofilm suitable for production of hydrogels. SEM also gave indications on the hydrogel-forming potential of the biofilm.

Original languageEnglish
Article number84
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) and the Swedish Research Council (2016–05822) for financial support.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Biofilm production
  • Biomass production
  • Brewery residues
  • Candida maltosa
  • Co-production


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