One Health Action against Human Fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano: Food, Water, Housing, Behavioural Traditions, Social Aspects, and Livestock Management Linked to Disease Transmission and Infection Sources

René Angles, Paola Buchon, M. Adela Valero, M. Dolores Bargues, Santiago Mas-Coma

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is the fascioliasis endemic area with the reported highest human prevalence and intensities. A multidisciplinary One Health initiative was implemented to decrease infection/reinfection rates detected by periodic monitoring between the ongoing yearly preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Within a One Health axis, the information obtained throughout 35 years of field work on transmission foci and affected rural schools and communities/villages is analysed. Aspects linked to human infection risk are quantified, including: (1) geographical extent of the endemic area, its dynamics, municipalities affected, and its high strategic importance; (2) human population at risk, community development and mortality rates, with emphasis on problems in infancy and gender; (3) characteristics of the freshwater collections inhabited by lymnaeid snail vectors and constituting transmission foci; (4) food infection sources, including population surveys with questionnaire and reference to the most risky edible plant species; (5) water infection sources; (6) household characteristics; (7) knowledge of the inhabitants on Fasciola hepatica and the disease; (8) behavioural, traditional, social, and religious aspects; (9) livestock management. This is the widest and deepest study of this kind ever performed. Results highlight prevention and control difficulties where inhabitants follow century-old behaviours, traditions, and beliefs. Intervention priorities are proposed and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1120
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by Project No. 2017/ACDE/001583 de Innovación para el Desar-rollo of the Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo (AECID), Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Madrid, Spain; by Project No. RLA5049 of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, IAEA Headquarters Vienna, Austria); by Health Research Project No. PI16/00520, Subprograma Estatal de Generación de Conocimiento de la Acción Estratégica en Salud (AES) y Fondos FEDER, Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación, ISCIII-MINECO, Madrid, Spain; by the Red de Investigación de Centros de Enfermedades Tropicales–RICET (Project No. RD16/0027/0023 of the PN de I+D+I, ISCIII-Subdirección General de Redes y Centros de Investigación Cooperativa RETICS), Ministry of Health and Consumption, Madrid; by CIBER de Enfermedades Infecciosas Project No. CB21/13/00056, ISCIII, Ministry of Science and Education, Madrid, Spain; by Projects Nos. 2016/099 and 2021/004 of the PROMETEO Program, Programa of Ayudas para Grupos de Investigación de Excelencia, Generalitat Valenciana, Valencia, Spain; and by Project No. 2017/01 of the V Convocatoria de Proyectos de Cooperación al Desarrollo de la Universidad de Valencia de 2016, Valencia, Spain.

Funding Information:
This research was funded by Project No. 2017/ACDE/001583 de Innovaci?n para el Desarrollo of the Agencia Espa?ola de Cooperaci?n Internacional para el Desarrollo (AECID), Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Madrid, Spain; by Project No. RLA5049 of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, IAEA Headquarters Vienna, Austria); by Health Research Project No. PI16/00520, Subprograma Estatal de Generaci?n de Conocimiento de la Acci?n Estrat?gica en Salud (AES) y Fondos FEDER, Plan Estatal.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • Behavioural
  • Food and water infection sources
  • Household and knowledge
  • Human and animal fascioliasis
  • Infancy and gender problems
  • Livestock management
  • Northern Bolivian Altiplano hyperendemic
  • One Health action
  • Prevention and control
  • Social aspects
  • Traditional
  • Transmission foci

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