Dynamic avalanche modeling requires as input the volumes and areas of the snow released, and consequently the fracture heights. Determining these parameters requires high-resolution spatial snow surface data from before and after an avalanche. In snow and avalanche research, terrestrial laser scanners are used increasingly to efficiently and accurately map snow surfaces and depths over an area of several km2. In practice however, several problems may occur, which must be recognized and accounted for during post-processing and interpretation. Thus, we combine terrestrial laser scanning with photogrammetry, total station measurements and field snow observations to document and accurately survey an artificially triggered avalanche at the Col du Lautaret test site (2058m) in the French Alps. The ability of TLS to determine avalanche modeling input parameters efficiently and accurately is shown, and we demonstrate how, merging TLS with the other methods facilitates and improves data post-processing and interpretation. Finally, we present for this avalanche the data required for the parameterization and validation of dynamic avalanche models.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors wish to thank Xavier Ravanat, Hervé Bellot, Fréderic Ousset and all those who contributed to measurements during the avalanche release operation. Special thanks are due to M. Dumont and C. Carmagnola for their contributions to the snow characterization. Vincent Vionnet from CNRM/CEN Météo-France is acknowledged for providing SAFRAN data. This work would not have been possible without the financial support of the ALCOTRA INTERREG MAP3 program and the PHC Amadeus.
© 2014 Elsevier B.V.
- Avalanche event
- Dynamic avalanche modeling
- Laser scanning
- Snow depth