Hydroclimate of the Andes Part II: Hydroclimate Variability and Sub-Continental Patterns

Paola A. Arias, René Garreaud, Germán Poveda, Jhan Carlo Espinoza, Jorge Molina-Carpio, Mariano Masiokas, Maximiliano Viale, Lucia Scaff, Peter J. van Oevelen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


This paper provides an updated review of the most relevant scientific literature related to the hydroclimate of the Andes. The Andes, the longest cordillera in the world, faces major challenges regarding climate variability and climate change, which impose several threats to sustainable development, including water supply and the sustainability of ecosystem services. This review focuses on hydroclimate variability of the Andes at a sub-continental scale. The annual water cycle and long-term water balance along the Andes are addressed first, followed by the examination of the effects of orography on convective and frontal precipitation through the study of precipitation gradients in the tropical, subtropical and extratropical Andes. In addition, a review is presented of the current scientific literature on the climate variability in the Andes at different timescales. Finally, open research questions are presented in the last section of this article.

Original languageEnglish
Article number505467
JournalFrontiers in Earth Science
StatePublished - 18 Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This review paper has been achieved as part of the ANDEX program (www.gewex.org/project/andex/), which is a prospective Regional Hydroclimate Project (RHP) of the GEWEX Hydroclimatology Panel (GHP). PA was supported by Universidad de Antioquia through the Grant CODI PRG 2017–16264. JE was supported by the French AMANECER-MOPGA project funded by ANR and IRD (ref. ANR-18-MPGA-0008). MM was funded by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)–Argentina. LS would like to acknowledge the financial support from Tri-agency Institutional Programs Secretariat of Canada through the Global Water Futures Program, Canada First Research Excellence Fund. MV was supported by FONDECYT 11151009 and FONCYT PICT 2016–1666.

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 Arias, Garreaud, Poveda, Espinoza, Molina-Carpio, Masiokas, Viale, Scaff and van Oevelen.


  • Andes
  • climate variability
  • hydroclimate
  • hydrological cycle
  • orographic precipitation


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