Evolution between forest macrorefugia is linked to discordance between genetic and morphological variation in Neotropical passerines

Natalia Trujillo-Arias, María José Rodríguez-Cajarville, Eloisa Sari, Cristina Y. Miyaki, Fabricio R. Santos, Christopher C. Witt, Ana S. Barreira, Isabel Gómez, Kazuya Naoki, Pablo L. Tubaro, Gustavo S. Cabanne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

The central Andean rainforests and the Atlantic Forest are two similar biomes that are fully isolated by xerophytic and open-vegetation regions (the Chaco and Cerrado, respectively). Even though there is evidence suggesting that these rainforests have been connected in the past, their dynamics of connection, the geographic areas that bridged these regions, and the biological processes that have promoted diversification between them remain to be studied. In this research, we used three passerine species (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps, Phylloscartes ventralis and Cacicus chrysopterus) as models to address whether the Andean and the Atlantic forests have acted as a refugia system (macrorefugia), and to evaluate biogeographic hypotheses of diversification and connection between them. In order to achieve these goals, we performed traditional phylogeographic analyses and compared alternative biogeographic scenarios by using Approximate Bayesian Computation. Additionally, we performed morphological analyses to evaluate phenotypic divergence between these regions. Our findings support that both rainforest regions acted as refugia, but that the impact of their isolation was stronger on the genetic than on the morphologic characters. Our results provided evidence that both geographic isolation as well as ecological factors have modeled the external traits of forest organisms in the region. Regarding the connection routes between the Andes and the Atlantic Forest, the genetic data rejected the hypothesis of a Chaco connection in the tested species, providing evidence for a connection through the Cerrado or through the transition between the Cerrado and Chaco, in a process that could have started as early as the Late Miocene.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106849
JournalMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Volume149
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the collectors and staff of the following institutions for having loaned tissue samples and or granted access to their specimen collections: Burke Museum of Natural History (Seattle, USA), American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA), Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” (Buenos Aires, Argentina); Museo de Zoología of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, Brazil); Museum of Southwestern Biology (New Mexico, USA); and the Laboratório de Genética e Evolução Molecular de Aves, Universidad de São Paulo (Belo Horizonte, Brazil). We thank the following institutions for granting collection permits: Administración de Parques Nacionales (Argentina), Ministerio de Ecología de Misiones, and environmental authorities of Bolivia and Brazil. We are also grateful for the postdoctoral stay program of the Universidad Industrial de Santanter (Colombia) because of its financial support to the first author during the analysis and drafting of the manuscript. This study was funded by: the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas from Argentina ( PIP 276 , Proyecto Coop. Internacional CNPq-CONICET and CAPES-MINCyT, as well as Proyecto Fondo IBOL), the Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica from Argentina ( PICT 2012 1924 and PICT 2014 2154 ), and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (BIOTA, 2013/50297-0 ) from Brazil, and National Science Foundation ( DOB 1343578 ) and NASA from the USA.

Funding Information:
We thank the collectors and staff of the following institutions for having loaned tissue samples and or granted access to their specimen collections: Burke Museum of Natural History (Seattle, USA), American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA), Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales ?Bernardino Rivadavia? (Buenos Aires, Argentina); Museo de Zoolog?a of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, Brazil); Museum of Southwestern Biology (New Mexico, USA); and the Laborat?rio de Gen?tica e Evolu??o Molecular de Aves, Universidad de S?o Paulo (Belo Horizonte, Brazil). We thank the following institutions for granting collection permits: Administraci?n de Parques Nacionales (Argentina), Ministerio de Ecolog?a de Misiones, and environmental authorities of Bolivia and Brazil. We are also grateful for the postdoctoral stay program of the Universidad Industrial de Santanter (Colombia) because of its financial support to the first author during the analysis and drafting of the manuscript. This study was funded by: the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient?ficas y Tecnol?gicas from Argentina (PIP 276, Proyecto Coop. Internacional CNPq-CONICET and CAPES-MINCyT, as well as Proyecto Fondo IBOL), the Agencia Nacional de Promoci?n Cient?fica y Tecnol?gica from Argentina (PICT 2012 1924 and PICT 2014 2154), and Funda??o de Amparo ? Pesquisa do Estado de S?o Paulo (BIOTA, 2013/50297-0) from Brazil, and National Science Foundation (DOB 1343578) and NASA from the USA.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Keywords

  • Andean forests
  • Approximate Bayesian Computation
  • Atlantic Forest
  • Birds
  • Macrorefugia
  • Normal mixture models
  • Phenotypic divergence

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