Detectability of southern gamma-ray sources beyond 100 TeV with ALPAQUITA, the prototype experiment of ALPACA

S. Kato, C. A.H. Condori, E. de la Fuente, A. Gomi, K. Hibino, N. Hotta, I. Toledano-Juarez, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, K. Kawata, W. Kihara, Y. Ko, T. Koi, H. Kojima, D. Kurashige, J. Lozoya, F. Orozco-Luna, R. Mayta, P. Miranda, K. MunakataH. Nakada, Y. Nakamura, Y. Nakazawa, C. Nina, M. Nishizawa, S. Ogio, M. Ohnishi, T. Ohura, S. Okukawa, A. Oshima, M. Raljevich, H. Rivera, T. Saito, T. Sako, T. K. Sako, S. Shibata, A. Shiomi, M. Subieta, N. Tajima, W. Takano, M. Takita, Y. Tameda, K. Tanaka, R. Ticona, H. Torres, H. Tsuchiya, Y. Tsunesada, S. Udo, K. Yamazaki, Y. Yokoe

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Abstract

Andes Large-area PArticle detector for Cosmic-ray physics and Astronomy (ALPACA) is an international experiment that applies southern very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy to determine the origin of cosmic rays around the knee energy region (1015eV − 1016eV). The experiment consists of an air shower (AS) array with a surface of 83,000m2 and an underground water Cherenkov muon detector (MD) array covering 5,400m2. The experimental site is at the Mt. Chacaltaya plateau in La Paz, Bolivia, with an altitude of 4,740m corresponding to 572g/cm2 atmospheric thickness. As the prototype experiment of ALPACA, the ALPAQUITA experiment aims to begin data acquisition in late 2021. The ALPAQUITA array consists of a smaller AS array (18,450m2) and underground MD (900m2), which are now under construction. ALPAQUITA’s sensitivity to gamma-ray sources is evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation finds that five gamma-ray sources observed by H.E.S.S. and HAWC experiments will be detected by ALPAQUITA beyond 10TeV and ne out of these five - HESS J1702-420A - above 300 TeV in one calendar year observation. The latter finding means that scientific discussions can be made on the emission mechanism of gamma rays beyond 100TeV from southern sources on the basis of the observational results of this prototype experiment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-107
Number of pages23
JournalExperimental Astronomy
Volume52
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The ALPACA project is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 19H00678, Scientific Research (B) 19H01922, and Scientific Research (S) 20H05640, the LeoAtrox supercomputer located at the facilities of the Centro de Análisis de Datos (CADS), CGSAIT, Universidad de Guadalajara, México, and by the joint research program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research (ICRR), The University of Tokyo. K. Kawata is supported by the Toray Science Foundation. E. de la Fuente thanks Coordinación General Académica y de Innovación (CGAI-UDG), cuerpo académico PRODEP-UDG-CA-499, Carlos Iván Moreno, Cynthia Ruano, Rosario Cedano, and Diana Naylleli, for financial and administrative support during sabbatical year stay at the ICRR on 2021. I. Toledano-Juarez acknowledges support from CONACyT, México; grant 754851. F. Orozco-Luna thanks CONACyT Ph. D. Grant 2021-000001-01NACF-02328.

Funding Information:
The ALPACA project is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 19H00678, Scientific Research (B) 19H01922, and Scientific Research (S) 20H05640, the LeoAtrox supercomputer located at the facilities of the Centro de Análisis de Datos (CADS) , CGSAIT, Universidad de Guadalajara, México, and by the joint research program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research (ICRR), The University of Tokyo. K. Kawata is supported by the Toray Science Foundation. E. de la Fuente thanks Coordinación General Académica y de Innovación (CGAI-UDG), cuerpo académico PRODEP-UDG-CA-499, Carlos Iván Moreno, Cynthia Ruano, Rosario Cedano, and Diana Naylleli, for financial and administrative support during sabbatical year stay at the ICRR on 2021. I. Toledano-Juarez acknowledges support from CONACyT, México; grant 754851. F. Orozco-Luna thanks CONACyT Ph. D. Grant 2021-000001-01NACF-02328.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.

Keywords

  • Detector prototype
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Scientific verification
  • TeV cosmic rays
  • VHE γ-ray astronomy

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