Atmospheric Concentrations of New Persistent Organic Pollutants and Emerging Chemicals of Concern in the Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) Region

Cassandra Rauert, Tom Harner, Jasmin K. Schuster, Anita Eng, Gilberto Fillmann, Luisa Eugenia Castillo, Oscar Fentanes, Martín Villa Ibarra, Karina S.B. Miglioranza, Isabel Moreno Rivadeneira, Karla Pozo, Beatriz Helena Aristizábal Zuluaga

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30 Scopus citations

Abstract

A special initiative was run by the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network to provide atmospheric data on a range of emerging chemicals of concern and candidate and new persistent organic pollutants in the Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) region. Regional-scale data for a range of flame retardants (FRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphate esters (OPEs), and a range of alternative FRs (novel FRs) are reported over 2 years of sampling with low detection frequencies of the novel FRs. Atmospheric concentrations of the OPEs were an order of magnitude higher than all other FRs, with similar profiles at all sites. Regional-scale background concentrations of the poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including the neutral PFAS (n-PFAS) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), and the volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) are also reported. Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA) was detected at highly elevated concentrations in Brazil and Colombia, in line with the use of the pesticide sulfluramid in this region. Similar concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFAS) were detected throughout the GRULAC region regardless of location type, and the VMS concentrations in air increased with the population density of sampling locations. This is the first report of atmospheric concentrations of the PFAAs and VMS from this region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7240-7249
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume52
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - 3 Jul 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Financial funding and support was provided by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP). These data have been generated in the frame of the Global Monitoring Plan for POPs under the Stockholm Convention, with support from the Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention and UN Environment. The implementation of the project as part of the Global Monitoring Plan for POPs has been made possible thanks to the generous contribution to the Stockholm Convention Voluntary Trust Fund by the European Commission through its Global Public Goods and Challenges (GPGC) programme. Thanks go to the team at Rio Blanco nature reserve, Aguas de Manizales in Manizales, for the collaboration during the sampling period. G.F. is a research fellow of the Brazilian Research Council (CNPq PQ 312341/2013-0) and CAPES (88881.120814/ 2016-01). K.P. is funded by the Fondecyt project no. 1161673. Deep thanks go to the Chacaltaya GAW station team helping on the deployment and recovery of the samples, especially Fernando Velarde and Marcelo Peñaloza. Thanks go to Clemens Ruepert from the Laboratory of Pesticide Residue Analysis of IRET for his collaboration during field work.

Funding Information:
Financial funding and support was provided by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP). These data have been generated in the frame of the Global Monitoring Plan for POPs under the Stockholm Convention, with support from the Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention and UN Environment. The implementation of the project as part of the Global Monitoring Plan for POPs has been made possible thanks to the generous contribution to the Stockholm Convention Voluntary Trust Fund by the European Commission through its Global Public Goods and Challenges (GPGC) programme. Thanks go to the team at Rio Blanco nature reserve, Aguas de Manizales in Manizales for the collaboration during the sampling period. G.F. is a research fellow of the Brazilian Research Council (CNPq PQ 312341/2013-0) and CAPES (88881.120814/2016-01). K.P. is funded by the Fondecyt project no. 1161673.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society.

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