The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations identified quinoa as a potential crop to combat global malnutrition. The diversity of its uses and its importance, both cultural and nutritional, make it a principal crop in South America. Bonifacio, Del Castillo et al. and the FAO identify four main groups of quinoa according to the agroecological conditions of the areas where it is grown: valleys, high plains, salt flats, and sea level. These ecotypes have different and specific botanical agronomic and adaptive characteristics. The Andean region is the center of origin of quinoa, more specifically the Bolivian and Peruvian Andes. In terms of its genetic variability, quinoa can be considered as an oligocentric species with its center of origin around Lake Titicaca. Owing to its phenological plasticity and resistance to climate constraints, quinoa is exceptionally adapted to the different arid climates of the Andean region.
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- Agroecological conditions
- Agronomic cultural practices
- Andean domestication
- Climate constraints
- Genetic variability
- South America