This study determines variations in ice extent of Nevado Illimani, Bolivia (168380 S, 678440 W), from 1963 to 2009. The results are compared with net accumulation rate variations obtained from a local ice core. We then propose an interpretation of the recent environmental history (last 46 years) of the region based on a study of remotely sensed and ice-core data. From 1963 to 2009, Nevado Illimani lost a total ice area of 9.49±1.09km2, a 35% reduction. Area variations generally followed variations in net accumulation rates during this period. Despite the current glacier area reduction trend, the Nevado Illimani glaciers will not completely disappear in the next few decades.